Sunday, January 12, 2020

Computer Mediated Learning Education

For busy adults with conflicting schedules facing a multitude of family and work demands, who still wish to add to their academic credentials or vocational qualifications, computer mediated learning may seem like an ideal way for such adults to satisfy their educational needs. For an elementary school instructor, however, computer mediated learning lacks the supervisory, mentoring, and hands-on capacity that is usually deemed necessary for imparting basic skills. An â€Å"on-line, collaborative learning approach using the Internet offers solutions to many of the problems plaguing university education,† such as oversubscribed classes and the difficulty for university students to gain access to the required classes that they need to graduate on time. (Jones, 2004) At a higher education level, computer mediated learning allows for students to be enrolled in more sections on a year 'round basis in a university environment-but this is not an advantage enjoyed by elementary school students. At best, in terms of dealing with high enrollment, the computer-mediated classroom is an asset, not a supplement to face-to-face learning on the lower levels of education. Even advocates of distance or computer mediated learning on the university level have stressed that such an educational format works best when students are mature, preferably adult learners, â€Å"comfortable with independent learning and computers,† who have a clear intention of why they wish to obtain their degree. Jones, 2004) Such a description could not be more antithetical to elementary school children. Moreover â€Å"to be successful, the implementation of such a learning approach requires significant technical and educational skills and experience,† as well as motivation on the part of the learners. (Jones, 2004) Does this mean that computer based learning has no place in an elementary school curriculum? Not necessarily. Foreign language instruction that would not otherwise be available to elementary school children is possible through the use of computer based learning, as children can hear and interact with native speakers, and even communicate with classes their own age, across the world. (Perez, 1996) When teaching a foreign language, one teacher found that the new technology encouraged students to think critically, encouraged self-directed learning, and provided a library on-screen of different texts in the language the students was learning. But because the computer medium can allow for passivity on the part of the student, Lucia Perez stresses that a teacher must take an intensively constructivist or hands on approach, to motivate the students to be proactive in their learning, such as assigning independent research topics, rather than permitting students to ‘veg out' in front of a screen, as might be their custom at home when using the computer for pleasure. Likewise, when using computer based learning to teach, for example â€Å"the teaching dilemma was how to simultaneously motivate the students by applying mathematics learning to real life problems of concern to them, and help them to gain quickly the basic skills to do the necessary mathematics manipulations almost automatically,† and once this motivation was integrated into the computer based learning, the program appeared to work well. (Shaw, 1996) Thus, computer based learning can and must be more than simply an effort to transfer face to face classroom instructional practices into a different or virtual medium, for the learning does not take place face to face, but is primarily student-directed. Also, there is more responsibility upon the head of an average Elementary teacher to create assignments that motivate and engage student's imagination when making use of computer based learning for specific, targeted purposes, but when done so effectively, the rewards are great for both teachers and students.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

2D Game Programming in C Tutorial Snake

The purpose of this tutorial is to teach 2D game programming and C-language through examples. The author used to program games in the mid-1980s and was a game designer at MicroProse for a year in the 90s. Although much of that is not relevant to the programming of todays big 3D games, for small casual games it will serve as a useful introduction. Implementing Snake Games like snake where objects are moving over a 2D field can represent the game objects either in a 2D grid or as a single dimension array of objects. Object here meaning any game object, not an object as used in object-oriented programming. Game Controls The keys are move with Wup, A left, Sdown, Dright. Press Esc to quit the game, f to toggle frame rate (this isnt synchronized to the display so can be fast), tab key to toggle debug info and p to pause it. When its paused the caption changes and the snake flashes, In snake the main game objects are The snakeTraps and fruit For purposes of gameplay, an array of ints will hold every game object (or part for the snake). This can also help when rendering the objects into the screen buffer. Ive designed the graphics for the game as follows: Horizontal Snake Body - 0Vertical Snake Body - 1Head in 4 x 90-degree rotations 2-5Tail in 4 x 90-degree rotations 6-9Curves for Directions Change. 10-13Apple - 14Strawberry - 15Banana - 16Trap - 17View the snake graphics file snake.gif So, it makes sense to use these values in a grid type defined as block[WIDTH*HEIGHT]. As there are only 256 locations in the grid Ive chosen to store it in a single dimension array. Each coordinate on the 16 x16 grid is an integer 0-255. Weve used ints so you could make the grid bigger. Everything is defined by #defines with WIDTH and HEIGHT both 16. As the snake graphics are 48 x 48 pixels (GRWIDTH and GRHEIGHT #defines) the window is initially defined as 17 x GRWIDTH and 17 x GRHEIGHT to be just slightly bigger than the grid. This has benefits in game speed as using two indexes is always slower than one but it means instead of adding or subtracting 1 from the snakes Y coordinates to move vertically, you subtract WIDTH. Add 1 to move right. However being sneaky weve also defined a macro l(x,y) which converts the x and y coordinates at compile time. What Is a Macro? #define l(X,Y)(Y*WIDTH)X The first row is index 0-15, the 2nd 16-31 etc. If the snake is in the first column and moving left then the check to hit the wall, before moving left, must check if coordinate %WIDTH 0 and for the right wall coordinate %WIDTH WIDTH-1. The % is the C modulus operator (like clock arithmetic) and returns the remainder after division. 31 div 16 leaves a remainder of 15. Managing the Snake There are three blocks (int arrays) used in the game. snake[], a ring buffershape[] - Holds Snake graphic indexesdir[] - Holds the direction of every segment in the snake including head and tail. At the game start, the snake is two segments long with a head and a tail. Both can point in 4 directions. For north the head is index 3, the tail is 7, for the east head is 4, the tail is 8, for the south head is 5 and the tail is 9, and for the west, the head is 6 and tail is 10. While the snake is two segments long the head and tail are always 180 degrees apart, but after the snake grows they can be 90 or 270 degrees. The game starts with the head facing north at location 120 and the tail facing south at 136, roughly central. At a slight cost of some 1,600 bytes of storage, we can gain a discernible speed improvement in the game by holding the snakes locations in the snake[] ring buffer mentioned above. What Is a Ring Buffer? A ring buffer is a block of memory used for storing a queue that is a fixed size and must be big enough to hold all data. In this case, its just for the snake. The data is pushed on the front of the queue and taken off the back. If the front of the queue hits the end of the block, then it wraps around. So long as the block is big enough, the front of the queue will never catch up with the back. Every location of the snake (i.e., the single int coordinate) from the tail to the head (i.e., backwards) is stored in the ring buffer. This gives speed benefits because no matter how long the snake gets, only the head, tail and the first segment after the head (if it exists) need to be changed as it moves. Storing it backwards is also beneficial because when the snake gets food, the snake will grow when its next moved. This is done by moving the head one location in the ring buffer and changing the old head location to become a segment. The snake is made up of a head, 0-n segments), and then a tail. When the snake eats food, the atefood variable is set to 1 and checked in the function DoSnakeMove() Moving the Snake We use two index variables, headindex and tailindex to point to the head and tail locations in the ring buffer. These start at 1 (headindex) and 0. So location 1 in the ring buffer holds the location (0-255) of the snake on the board. Location 0 holds the tail location. When the snake moves one location forward, both the tailindex and headindex are incremented by one, wrapping round to 0 when they reach 256. So now the location that was the head is where the tail is. Even with a very long snake that is winding and convoluted in say 200 segments. only the headindex, segment next to the head and tailindex change each time it moves. Note because of the way SDL works, we have to draw the entire snake every frame. Every element is drawn into the frame buffer then flipped so its displayed. This has one advantage though in that we could draw the snake smoothly moving a few pixels, not an entire grid position.

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Capitalism vs Socialism - 1746 Words

Outline: Essay question: What is the best policy for any country: capitalism or socialism? Introduction: Thesis statement: It is much better to live in the country where the gap between poor and rich people is sharply noticeable, than to know that a person will never differ from the mass of people or feel a real freedom in his/her own country. Body: A. Capitalistic policy gives an equal opportunity to everyone to become a wealthy person. * Person can have his own business and develop it in the future. * The nation becomes rich B. Market economy is the base of capitalism. * Foreign investments * Business cycle. C. Advantages of capitalist mode showed by Adam Smith. D. Socialism lost its popularity in†¦show more content†¦Thus, entrepreneur satisfies the demand and makes profits. Of course, there is nothing eternal and everything will lose its importance, but the mechanism of capitalism is great. (The history of capitalism: from feudalism to Wall Atreet, Beattie, 2011). To justify capitalism, such a great person as Adam Smith represented five main advantages of capitalism: 1. With little interference by the government, problems like corruption, lack of incentives and poor information do not arise. We end up with these problems only when governments attempt to control the economy. This is one of the main benefits of capitalism. 2. Cost effective allocation of resources being the ‘invisible hand of the market’, capitalism ensures that resources are distributed according to consumer choice. No firm is rewarded for producing goods that people don’t desire. 3. Successful Production. One of the advantages of capitalism is that as firms have incentives to be efficient in production, in a market system, cutting costs, improving competitiveness and productivity are their top priority. They will go out of business if their efficiency and productivity fails. 4. Dynamic Efficiency. Firms in a capitalist system need to respond to the flux in consumer preferences and respond according to the new consumer trends. This improves and maintains their efficiency over time. 5.Show MoreRelatedCapitalism Vs. Socialism And Socialism868 Words   |  4 PagesCapitalism vs Socialism Capitalism and socialism have been two school of thoughts in economics that have opposing factors, and there have been a lot of criticisms and comparison on which economy is better in terms of economic equality, and the role that the government plays in the society. In most situations, a society with a better economic opportunities and choices, with more technological advancement and private owned businesses would be a better option to a society that is collectively ownedRead MoreSocialism : Socialism Vs. Capitalism1156 Words   |  5 PagesEric Butterbaugh Mrs. Penwell English Composition November 8, 2015 Socialism V. 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In this text, I will in addition to comparing and contrasting socialism and capitalism also discuss the shortcomings of these two economic systems. Further, amongst other things, I will highlight the overlaps between the two. Capitalism vs. Socialism In seeking to highlight the key differences between socialism and capitalism, it would be prudent to first offer a concise definition of the two terms. Capitalism in the words of Brinkerhoff,

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Political Party Of The United States Of America

The nature of the political party system in the United States of America, the oldest democracy in existence, is that the majority party rules. In essence, of the two major contemporary political parties that has a preponderance of votes wins the majority seat or as it is called â€Å"the winner takes all system† and the party that loses takes the minority seat and gets little to no power in the political arena. As a result, there is no representation for any other political party as long as the Democrats and the Republicans remain synergized. Thereupon, we have two almost ideological opposing parties that work together to dominate the political arena in the United States of America. Moreover, the question that arises is this an advantage or disadvantage? Well the answer is both, the major advantage is that no additional radical parties other than the two unified parties can dominate and create chaotic or disastrous reform. On the other hand, the major disadvantage is that a v oter has only two choices because all the other small parties cannot compete with the two major contemporary parties voting power so if both major parties have displeasing candidates the vote has to choose from the less distasteful of the two chooses. The dangers of a two party system is that if one of the parties has a mishap and lose its standing, then it is a tyrannical one party system that will allow the regional power to run that local area through capital and no agencies to defend that individualsShow MoreRelatedThe Age Of Jackson s Political History1074 Words   |  5 PagesAmerica’s political history because Jackson established new precedents with the government’s relations with Indians, the issue of state and federal rights and also established a political rivalry. The Age of Jackson occurred during the time period from 1829 to 1837. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

ESTEE LAUDER Essay Example For Students

ESTEE LAUDER Essay Estee Lauder was a successful cosmetic designer that has been around for a long time till her disappointing death in April 24 of 2004. She is one of the women most looked up to, because of her famous cosmetic line that estimates to about 2 billion dollars from world wide sales and 5.4 if you add her other cosmetic brands and stores, like MAC. To get her to this fortune she put her heart and devotion into it. Estee Lauder was a daughter of two immigrants, a French catholic mother and a Jewish father that inhabited New York. She was born in Queens, New York July 1, 1906, even though her birth certificate states that it was in 1908. Her, real, full name was Josephine Esther Mentzer, but family called her Esty, short for Esther. But the name changed when, a school official, mistakenly, put down Estee instead of Esty. Her child hood is a total mystery till this date. In January 15, 1930, at the age of 26 she married a businessman by the name of Joseph Lauter. His last name later changed to the famous Lauder. Three years after their marriage they added a new family member, their first son Leonard A. Lauter. During her marriage, in the 1930s, Estee sold her chemist uncles face creams that he mixed in his laboratory. That later interested her into experimenting with face creams herself. She improved the creams and named them by her name, Estee Lauder. She began her cosmetic business in New York and Miami Beach, Florida, while the time of the depression struck the U.S. She didnt pay much attention to her family because of her new rising buisiness and divorced her husband Joseph in 1939, but later in 1942 she noyticed the huge mistake she had met because he made her incredibly happy. Her talent in selling her products was exceptionally great. Her products sold more when she began to give lipsticks within the gift package when someone bought her products. This method called word-of-mouth advertising raised her selling ranges sky-high. Seeing that she was successful, she invested money into making big marketing plans. She had an idea of selling her products in biggest and best department stores with models advertising her products in pictures. After her thrive at Soaks Fifth Avenue(a big department store) in New York, she expanded to several parts of the country and till this date her products Estee Lauder is a triumph and accumulated a lot of wealth.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Аlbum Revolver by The Beatles

The Beatles is a famous rock group, which is known across the world. The group has a rich historical background as evident in their album called Revolver. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Ð lbum Revolver by The Beatles specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The group is based in Britain; however, they have engaged in numerous performances in many world-class stages, which have made the group internationally renowned. The group’s album called Revolver is their most famous regardless of other popular albums. Therefore, the album is viewed by many as the peak of the group’s career. Revolver was released in 1966 and started by winning awards in many fronts. After its release, Revolver stayed top of a famous â€Å"English ranking called British chart† for close to seven weeks. It also won other top classifications such as the â€Å"American chart† where it dominated for six weeks. These two ch arts are still top ranking measures in the music industry thus they justify why the album is still regarded as one of the best albums in the history of music. As late as 2009, the album still topped many charts and it was ranked third in a â€Å"British magazine known as Rolling Stone† which ranks the best five hundred albums in history of music. The album is made up of fourteen songs which won various prizes as singles. These include the â€Å"famous Good Day Sunshine, Taxman, and Yellow Submarine†. Most of the songs in the album were composed by Paul McCartney who is a famous composer in Britain and he was assisted by Lennon. A few songs such as â€Å"Love You To† and â€Å"I Want To Tell You† were composed by Harrison who is a great composer and especially in rock music. The three composers were also the lead vocalists for their songs which are the main reason their voices blended well. The album was also promoted by high quality instrumentation which went with the songs. John Lennon applied his classic skills in playing the guitar for most of the songs. He doubled as a guitarist and a vocalist thus his voice was well in harmony with the guitar as well as the other instruments. Lennon was assisted in playing the instruments by Mal Evans who has a legendary quality and way of playing guitar. Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other instrument players in the album were â€Å"Geoff Emerick who was an engineer† for the musical instruments. Brian Jones was also involved as â€Å"he played the sound effects which give a sound of clinking glass as it is heard in the song called Yellow Submarine†. Revolver is also characterized by songs which have a great lyrical background and the vocalists were able to merge this with the instruments while creating the right tempo. The songs are cross-thematic where most of them are rel ated to love and others are party songs. However, â€Å"Lennon, McCartney, and Harrison† merged their talents well to give the album the quality and reputation it has earned. The quality of their album has made its songs to be preferred soundtracks for numerous movies. Conclusion Music is largely dependent on talent but this is not always necessary to develop great music. In many cases, it also depends on the effort put in to come up with the desired music. This is evidenced by the quality of music that Beatles infused in their famous album called Revolver. The main contributing artists have different capabilities but it took a lot of effort to merge these talents and come up with that album. The album is classical as attested by its continued preference over other new albums. It is difficult to find modern music which has the same lyrical and instrumental quality like the album. This essay on Ð lbum Revolver by The Beatles was written and submitted by user Ansley Salazar to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

An Overview of Early Childhood Education

An Overview of Early Childhood Education Early Childhood Education is a term that refers to educational programs and strategies geared toward children from birth to the age of eight. This time period is widely considered the most vulnerable and crucial stage of a persons life. Early childhood education often focuses on guiding children to learn through play. The term commonly  refers to preschool or infant/child care programs. Early Childhood Education Philosophies Learning through play is a common teaching philosophy for young children. Jean Piaget developed the PILES theme to meet the physical, intellectual, language, emotional and social needs of children. Piagets constructivist theory emphasizes hands-on educational experiences, giving children the chance to explore and manipulate objects. Children in preschool learn both academic and social-based lessons. They prepare for school by learning letters, numbers, and how to write. They also learn sharing, cooperation, taking turns, and operating within a structured environment. Scaffolding in Early Childhood Education The  scaffolding method of teaching  is to offer more structure and support when a child is learning a new concept. The child may be taught something new by employing things they already know how to do. As in a scaffold that supports a building project, these supports can then be removed as the child learns the skill. This method is meant to build confidence while learning. Early Childhood Education Careers Careers in early childhood and education include: Preschool Teacher: These teachers work with children ages three to five who are not yet in kindergarten. The educational requirements vary by state. Some require only a high school diploma and a certification, while others require a four-year degree.Kindergarten Teacher: This position may be with a public or private school and may require a degree and certification, depending on the state.Teacher for First, Second, and Third Grades: These elementary school positions are considered to be part of early childhood education. They teach a full range basic academic subjects to a class rather than specializing. A bachelors degree is required and a certification may be needed, depending on the state.Teacher Assistant or Paraeducator: The assistant works in the classroom under the direction of the lead teacher. Often they work with one or more students at a time. This position often does not require a degree.Childcare Worker: Nannies, babysitters, and workers at childcare centers usually perf orm basic duties such as feeding and bathing in addition to play and activities that may be mentally stimulating. An associates degree in early childhood development or a credential may result in a higher salary. Childcare Center Administrator: The director of a childcare facility may be required by a state to have a bachelors degree in Early Childhood Education or a certification in Child Development. This position trains and supervises the staff as well as performing the administrative duties of the facility.Special Education Teacher: This position often requires additional certification beyond that for a teacher. The special education teacher would work with children who have special needs, including mental, physical, and emotional challenges.